What is Catenanes in biology?
Catenanes, as the name of Latin origin suggests (catena = chain), are chain-like molecules composed of at least two cyclic compounds (i.e., a catenane) that are not covalently linked to one another but nevertheless cannot be separated unless covalent bond breakage occurs.
What is Rotaxanes chemistry?
Rotaxanes are unique supramolecular structures in which a cyclic molecule is threaded onto an “axle” molecule and end-capped by bulky groups at the terminal of the “axle” molecule.
What are Rotaxanes and catenanes?
[n]Rotaxanes (Figure1A) are composed of a central dumbbell-shaped component encircled by nÀ1 trapped rings, while [n]catenanes (Figure 1B) contain n interlocked macrocycles. The prefix [n] indicates the number of me- chanically interlocked components, regardless of their identities.
What is concatenation in molecular biology?
A structure formed by two or more interlinked closed circular (cc)DNAs; formation occurs between the rapid replication of a ccDNA and the slow nicking of one of the ccDNAs to release it from the others. Tags: Molecular Biology.
What are rotaxanes and Catenanes?
What are rotaxanes used for?
Rotaxane-based molecular machines have been of initial interest for their potential use in molecular electronics as logic molecular switching elements and as molecular shuttles. These molecular machines are usually based on the movement of the macrocycle on the dumbbell.
What are Catenanes give examples?
Catenanes have been synthesized incorporating many functional units, including redox-active groups (e.g. viologen, TTF=tetrathiafulvalene), photoisomerizable groups (e.g. azobenzene), fluorescent groups and chiral groups.
What are Catenanes in DNA replication?
Catenanes, or topologically linked circular molecules, were first extracted from living cells by Vinograd and co-workers (1,2). It was proven later that catenanes appear at the end of replication of circular DNA (3).
What is concatenation in biology?
A structure formed by two or more interlinked closed circular (cc)DNAs; formation occurs between the rapid replication of a ccDNA and the slow nicking of one of the ccDNAs to release it from the others.
What genes are called concatenated?
In one, gene sequences are concatenated into a super-gene alignment, which is then analyzed to generate the species tree. In the other, phylogenies are inferred separately from each gene, and a consensus of these gene phylogenies is used to represent the species tree.
Which of the following is an example of rotaxanes which is present in our body?
However, examples of rotaxane substructure have been found in naturally occurring peptides, including: cystine knot peptides, cyclotides or lasso-peptides such as microcin J25.
What is Catenane and rotaxane?
Catenanes are two interlocked cycles, like two links in a chain, which cannot be separated without the breaking of a covalent bond. Rotaxanes are similar but are composed of a cycle encircling an acyclic molecule like a ring around a thread.