What is Paraxanthine used for?
Paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine), a metabolite of caffeine, is a central nervous stimulant and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Paraxanthine functions as the antagonist of adenosine receptors A1 and A2a and has lower toxicity and lesser anxiogenic effects than caffeine.
What is the use of theobromine?
Theobromine is used as a vasodilator (a blood vessel widener), as an aid in urination, and as a heart stimulant.
What foods contain methylxanthines?
Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), and theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) are the most well-known compounds of the family of methylxanthines and are naturally present in tea leaves, yerba mate, coffee beans, cocoa beans, kola nuts and guarana berries.
Is Paraxanthine toxic?
In in vitro cell culture studies, paraxanthine is reported to be less harmful than caffeine and the least harmful of the caffeine-derived metabolites in terms of hepatocyte toxicity.
Is theobromine good for the heart?
In conclusion, theobromine-enriched cocoa significantly increased 24-hour ambulatory systolic blood pressure while lowering central systolic blood pressure. The consumption of foods and beverages rich in flavanols has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
What are the two main effects of theobromine in the body?
And in small amounts, theobromine’s effectscan make it medically useful. But even here, it shows complexity. It increases heart rate and at the same time it dilates blood vessels, acting to bring down blood pressure. It can also open up airways and is under study as a cough medication.
Which tea has the most theophylline?
Theophylline is found in black tea and to a lesser extent in green coffee, cocoa cotyledon and dried mate. Theophylline is synthesized on an industrial scale and is used principally in pharmaceutical preparations. Per-caput daily intake of theophylline from black tea in the USA has been estimated to be 0.14 mg.