What is the active metabolite of cyclophosphamide?
Oral cyclophosphamide is rapidly absorbed and then converted by mixed-function oxidase enzymes (cytochrome P450 system) in the liver to active metabolites. The main active metabolite is 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, which exists in equilibrium with its tautomer, aldophosphamide.
Is Cytoxan a Urotoxic?
Urotoxicity can occur with short-term or long-term use of cyclophosphamide. Before starting treatment, exclude or correct any urinary tract obstructions [see CONTRAINDICATIONS].
How does cyclophosphamide work in nephrotic syndrome?
Cyclophosphamide (brand name: Cytoxan) is a medication that lowers the body’s natural immunity. The immune system is thought to be involved in causing Nephrotic Syndrome. By lowering the immune system’s activity, this treatment may help patients suffering from Nephrotic Syndrome.
How is cyclophosphamide metabolized?
Cyclophosphamide undergoes metabolism to several intermediates with alkylating activity. The principal metabolites identified are phosphoramide mustard, and acrolein. Phosphoramide mustard can undergo dephosphoramidation to yield nornitrogen mustard, which also has alkylating activity.
Why is cyclophosphamide a prodrug?
Cyclophosphamide is actually a prodrug, converted in the liver by mixed–function oxidase enzymes to the active metabolites 4-hydroxy–cyclophosphamide and phosphoramide mustard. The result is the binding of these agents to and the cross–linking of DNA, thus inhibiting cell proliferation and function.
What drug class is cyclophosphamide?
Cyclophosphamide is in a class of medications called alkylating agents. When cyclophosphamide is used to treat cancer, it works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells in your body.
Is cyclophosphamide nephrotoxic?
One of the limiting effects of cyclophosphamide use is nephrotoxicity.
Does cyclophosphamide increase creatinine?
No change in creatinine clearance or urinary excretion of protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, and amino acids was ob- served after cyclophosphamide.
Is cyclophosphamide a nitrogen mustard?
Other nitrogen mustards developed include cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, uramustine, melphalan, and bendamustine. Bendamustine has recently re-emerged as a viable chemotherapeutic treatment. Nitrogen mustards that can be used for chemical warfare purposes are tightly regulated.
What cells do cyclophosphamide target?
Cyclophosphamide is converted to active metabolites in the liver, one of the major active metabolites being 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide, and targets rapidly proliferating malignant cells.