What is Wolbachia endosymbiont?

What is Wolbachia endosymbiont?

Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular maternally transmitted, gram-negative bacterium which forms a spectrum of endosymbiotic relationships from parasitism to obligatory mutualism in a wide range of arthropods and onchocercid nematodes, respectively.

How does Wolbachia bacteria work?

We discovered that when Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carry Wolbachia, the bacteria compete with viruses like dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever. This makes it harder for viruses to reproduce inside the mosquitoes. And the mosquitoes are much less likely to spread viruses from person to person.

What type of organisms Wolbachia endosymbionts are?

The Wolbachia endosymbionts encompass a large group of intracellular bacteria of biomedical and veterinary relevance, closely related to Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia.

What group of bacteria do Wolbachia belong to?

Wolbachia Species Wolbachia bacteria are endosymbionts of arthropods and nematodes. They were known to be present in filarial worms, but it was later shown that they may play a role in human disease. These bacteria manipulate the fertility of their host.

What do endosymbionts do?

Endosymbionts are organisms that form a symbiotic relationship with another cell or organism. Some endosymbionts can be found either inside cells (intracellular), while others attach to the surface of cells (extracellular). Symbiotic relationships are ones in which both parties benefit.

What does Wolbachia do to insects?

(A) Wolbachia protects insects against RNA viruses. The protection is dependent on Wolbachia density, which varies between strains. Strains can be experimentally transferred to new hosts, such as mosquitoes.

Why is Wolbachia important?

The World Mosquito Program’s research has shown that when introduced into the Aedes aegypti mosquito, Wolbachia can help to reduce the transmission of these viruses to people. This important discovery has the potential to transform the fight against life-threatening mosquito-borne diseases.

What does Wolbachia cause?

Disease vector Outside of insects, Wolbachia infects a variety of isopod species, spiders, mites, and many species of filarial nematodes (a type of parasitic worm), including those causing onchocerciasis (river blindness) and elephantiasis in humans, as well as heartworms in dogs.

What insects does Wolbachia infect?

Generality: Different Viruses and Different Wolbachia Lineages. After the first studies showing that Wolbachia protects flies and mosquitoes against RNA viruses (6–8) and its potential to control insect-born human diseases (8–10, 14), there was a great interest in the area.

What is a bacterial endosymbiont?

Introduction. Endosymbiosis is a symbiosis in which one symbiont dwells within the body of the other. Usually, when talking about endosymbionts, we refer to bacteria or less frequently to fungi living inside the eukaryotic cell or simply inside the body.

How are endosymbionts important to insects?

Insects have co-evolved with their primary endosymbionts for several million years; therefore their relationship is obligate. This means that insects lacking their bacteria are unable to grow and reproduce while the symbiotic bacteria are not viable in the absence of their host (Kikuchi, 2009).

Are Wolbachia bacteria?

Wolbachia is a genus of intracellular bacteria that infects mainly arthropod species, including a high proportion of insects, and also some nematodes. It is one of the most common parasitic microbes and is possibly the most common reproductive parasite in the biosphere.

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