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Why is hyaluronidase a spreading factor?

Why is hyaluronidase a spreading factor?

Since hyaluronidases are enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of hyaluronic acid in the body, they may increase the permeability of tissue to fluids. Hyaluronidase in snake and insect venom is thought to function as a “spreading factor” by degrading host hyaluronic acid, thus allowing spread of toxin (13).

How is hyaluronidase a virulence factor?

For a number of Gram-positive organisms, hyaluronidases have been shown to be essential virulence factors because of their ability to disseminate cells and virulence factors through tissue (9).

Why is hyaluronidase an important virulence factor of pathogenic bacteria?

Hyaluronate plays important roles in immune system functions [3]. One possible role for the hyaluronidases of pathogenic organisms may be the breakdown of hyaluronate leading to modulation of the immune system, potentially making a more ‘bacteria-friendly environment’.

What is spreading factor?

The spreading factor defines the relation between symbol rate and chip rate. A higher spreading factor increases sensitivity and range, but also prolongs the airtime of a packet and will likely raise the risk of a collision. LoRaWAN uses six different orthogonal spreading factors numbered 7–12.

What substance is called the spreading factor?

1. Hyaluronidase – This is also called the spreading factor because it catalyzes the breakdown of hyaluronic acid, the. substance that cements the human cells together. This allows the bacterial cells to spread through tissue causing a. condition known as cellulitis.

How do bacteria use hyaluronidase?

Hyaluronidase is produced by some bacteria as a mechanism to penetrate the connective tissue barrier and thereby establish infections. Since hyaluronate is a major constituent of the skin, hyaluronidase may be an essential component in enabling the spread of the pathogens from an initial site of infection.

How is Streptococcus pyogenes spread?

Infections caused by S. pyogenes are highly contagious. Transmission can occur through airborne droplets, hand contact with nasal discharge or with objects or surfaces contaminated with bacteria, skin contact with contaminated lesions, or contaminated food sources.

What does hyaluronidase do in bacteria?

What are spreading codes?

In DSSS, a spreading code is used to map each data bit in the original signal to multiple bits in the transmitted signal. The pseudorandom code (spreading code) spreads the input data across a wider frequency range compared to the input frequency. In the frequency domain, the output signals appear as noise.

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