What is carotenoid biosynthesis?
Abstract. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway serves manifold roles in plants related to photosynthesis, photoprotection, development, stress hormones, and various volatiles and signalling apocarotenoids.
What is biosynthesis beta-carotene?
Background. β-carotene is a carotenoid compound that has been widely used not only in the industrial production of pharmaceuticals but also as nutraceuticals, animal feed additives, functional cosmetics, and food colorants. Currently, more than 90% of commercial β-carotene is produced by chemical synthesis.
What are carotenoids and what is their function?
Carotenoids are pigments in plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. These pigments produce the bright yellow, red, and orange colors in plants, vegetables, and fruits. Carotenoids act as a type of antioxidant for humans. There are more than 600 different types of carotenoids.
What are carotenoids simple definition?
Definition of carotenoid : any of various usually yellow to red pigments (such as carotenes) found widely in plants and animals and characterized chemically by a long aliphatic polyene chain composed of eight isoprene units.
What is the function of carotenoids in photosynthesis?
Abstract. Carotenoids are essential in oxygenic photosynthesis: they stabilize the pigment–protein complexes, are active in harvesting sunlight and in photoprotection. In plants, they are present as carotenes and their oxygenated derivatives, xanthophylls.
How are carotenoids formed?
Carotenoids can be produced from fats and other basic organic metabolic building blocks by all these organisms. The only land dwelling arthropods known to produce carotenoids are aphids, and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi. It is also produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies.
Where are carotenoids synthesized?
Carotenoids are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms (including plants) and some non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi. Plant carotenoids are tetraterpenes derived from the 40-carbon isoprenoid phytoene.
Why are carotenoids important in photosynthesis?
Carotenoids are essential in oxygenic photosynthesis: they stabilize the pigment–protein complexes, are active in harvesting sunlight and in photoprotection. In plants, they are present as carotenes and their oxygenated derivatives, xanthophylls.
What are the example of carotenoid?
α-Carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene are the most common dietary carotenoids (1). α-Carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin are provitamin A carotenoids, meaning they can be converted by the body to retinol (Figure 1).
What are types carotenoids?
What is the main function of carotenoids in plants?
Carotenoids have been shown to have two major functions in photosynthesis. They act as photoprotective agents, preventing the harmful photodynamic reaction, and as accessory light-harvesting pigments, extending the spectral range over which light drives photosynthesis.
Why do plants produce carotenoids?
Carotenoids have two important functions in plants. First, they can contribute to photosynthesis. They do this by transferring some of the light energy they absorb to chlorophylls, which then use this energy to drive photosynthesis. Second, they can protect plants which are over-exposed to sunlight.