What is iNOS protein?
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is one of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolite-metabolizing enzymes. Arginine increases NO levels while NAME (a nonselective NOS inhibitor) lowers oxidant levels.
What is iNOS in inflammation?
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a major downstream mediator of inflammation in various cell types including skeletal muscle cells.
What stimulates iNOS?
In immune cells, iNOS can be induced in a non-calcium-dependent manner by a variety of stimuli, including LPS, IFN-γ, and TNF [3,50]. Moreover, iNOS-deficient mice display an increased effector DC cell phenotype, including a population of cells expressing IL-12, TNF, and IL-6.
Where is iNOS found?
iNOS and nNOS are soluble and found predominantly in the cytosol, while eNOS is membrane associated.
How is iNOS activated?
iNOS activation is regulated mainly at the transcriptional level, but also at posttranscriptional, translational and postranslational levels through effects on protein stability, dimerization, phosphorylation, cofactor binding and availability of oxygen and L-arginine as substrates.
What is iNOS inhibitor?
Nitric oxide (NO) is a pleiotropic signaling molecule implicated in diverse biological processes including inhibition of platelet aggregation, regulation of neurotransmission, vasodilation, immune responses, and inflammation.
What is the role of iNOS?
Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) plays a critical role in the regulation of multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Previous studies have shown that iNOS plays pathogenic as well as regulatory roles in MS and EAE.
Does the nitric oxide stop inflammation?
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. It gives an anti-inflammatory effect under normal physiological conditions.
Is iNOS a cytokine?
Interestingly, proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the up-regulation of inducible oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in IBD.
Does nitric oxide cause inflammation?
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling molecule that plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. It gives an anti-inflammatory effect under normal physiological conditions. On the other hand, NO is considered as a pro-inflammatory mediator that induces inflammation due to over production in abnormal situations.
How is iNOS produced?
Immunostimulating cytokines or bacterial pathogens activate iNOS and generate high concentrations of NO through the activation of inducible nuclear factors, including NFkB.
Does iNOS produce NO?
As a result the production of NO by iNOS lasts much longer than from the other isoforms of NOS, and tends to produce much higher concentrations of NO in the cell. The production of NO by iNOS can, however, be controlled through transcription. In most cell types iNOS protein levels are either very low or undetectable.